Stalin's bunker (object number 1)
Adress
Samara, 167, ul. Frunze
Category
regional
Type
historical monument
Date
20.02 – 01.11.1942
Architect
Julian Ostrovsky
Architectural style
soviet neoclassicism

Stalin’s bunker was built as a bomb shelter for the reserve general headquarters of the commander in chief in Samara. Object No. 1 is the deepest and best-preserved shelter of the Great Patriotic War, a unique underground construction in scale. This is a monument of a world-wide scale political and historical events that played a key role in the history of the Russian state, influenced the outcome of World War II and the further historical fate of European, Asian and other peoples, the preservation of their sovereignty and statehood, and the strengthening of patriotic ideas and moods.

Object No. 1 was built as a reserve residence for the Supreme Commander of the USSR I.V. Stalin. The construction of the bunker was the most secret construction site during the war, where mainly the construction technologies of the Moscow metro were used. Construction was carried out by a team of Moscow metro builders that signed a life-long non-disclosure agreement.

Some figures and facts indicate the uniqueness of this building: the object reaches 37 m in depth, which is approximately equal to a 12-story building; its construction lasted only 9 months with 2.9 thousand workers and 800 engineering and technical workers involved; 25 thousand cubic meters of soil were excavated, poured 5 thousand cubic meters concrete castings; the structure has 9 levels connected by stairs and elevators, 3 independent input of electricity; 1 own diesel power station; the structure is protected by a large upper slab 2.9 m thick and a small lower slab 1.1 m thick; the walls of the bunker are reinforced concrete, meter thick, with cast-iron tubings, which were previously used in the construction of the Moscow metro. The capacity of the bunker is 115 people for a long stay and 600 people for a short stay. Water supply and effluent discharge are twice reserved; the construction has autonomous life support systems, including a generator, water treatment systems, etc. All engineering systems are in working condition. Thanks to its design, the shelter can withstand the direct hit of a two-ton bomb and atomic weapons. For comparison: Churchill’s bunker is designed for just a 50-pound bomb. The construction depth is more than 2 times the Hitler’s bunker and Churchill’s and Roosevelt’s bunkers by 6 times.

Nine levels are connected by stairs and elevators with a central, backup entrances and a working floor. Due to the atmosphere of special secrecy that accompanied the construction and existence of the object, it has a unique degree of safety. Inside the bunker there are units for various purposes: a guard post, elevator, emergency exits, technical floor, diesel with autonomous diesel generator, service rooms, security guards, staff workers. The working floor is downstairs and includes the room of the duty communications officer, secretary, descent to the pump room, a conference room (72 sq. M) and Stalin’s office (36 sq. M), a toilet room. There are no bedrooms and restrooms in the bunker. The interiors reflect the wartime lifestyle, preserving the scale and atmosphere of the war. The uniqueness of the interiors is that they completely suppress the feeling of claustrophobia. Compared to the utilitarian interiors of Hitler, Churchill and Roosevelt bunkers, Stalin’s bunker is distinguished by the solemn character of interiors designed in the style of Soviet neoclassicism.

The object was excluded from secret works only in the 1990s. The entrance to the bunker is organized from the building, which is an object of cultural heritage of federal significance «Governor’s House (» White House «) on 167, ul. Frunze, currently occupied by the Samara State Institute of Culture. From the end of 1941 to February 1942, the Government of the USSR worked in the building. The shelter itself is located under Chapaev Square next to the building of the Drama Theater. Currently, Stalin’s bunker is used as a museum.

The bunker is a unique example of the building genius of mankind, testifying to the high level of development of construction equipment and technologies during the Second World War, which has an ultimate civilizational value. The construction is an outstanding example of shelter, the reliability of which was ahead of time and continues to maintain its protective functions, taking into account modern types of weapons of mass destruction. The construction has universal value, it is planned to be nominated to the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The document of the acceptance of the object under security: Ruling of the Governor of the Samara region dated December 31, 1997 No. 393.

Registration number in EGROKN: 631711292050005